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|Pack swipe -- prolog/swipe.pl|
This module provides a mechanism for composing and running Unix shell
pipelines. It defines a typed algebraic term language using operators for
piping and redirections while checking that the type of data passing
through the standard input and output streams of each subprocess match
with those of connected processes.
The language is only capable of describing simple, linear pipelines, where
each process can have one or zero input streams and one or zero output
streams. The type of a process is denoted by a term
X and Y are stream types and can be 0 for no stream, or $T for a stream
of type T, where T is an arbitrary term describing what sort of data is
in the stream, eg, plain text or XML. The typing judgements are as follows:
P >> Q :: X>>Z :- P :: X>>Y, Q::Y>>Z. F :> Q :: 0>>Z :- F :: file(Y), Q::Y>>Z. P >: F :: X>>0 :- F :: file(Y), P::X>>Y. P * Q :: T :- P :: T1, Q :: T2, seq_types(T1,T2,T). P + Q :: T :- P :: T1, Q :: T2, par_types(T1,T2,T). P :: T :- swipe:def(P,Q), Q :: T. sh(T,Fmt,Args) :: T. sh(T,Cmd) :: T. in(D,P) :: T :- P::T. % execute P in directory D Filename^T :: file(T).
The rules for combining types with the * operator (shell &&, sequential execution) and + operator (shell &, concurrent execution) are encoded in the predicates seq_types and par_types. The rules for sequential excution are:
The rules for concurrent execution are
If the type requirements are not met, then the system throws a helpful type_mismatch exception.
The primitive processes are expressed as shell commands.
sh(T,Cmd), where T is an explicitly given type,
corresponds to a shell command Cmd, written, including arguments, as you
would type it into the Unix shell. Arguments can be handling using the
sh(T,Fmt,Args), where Fmt is a format string as used by format/2,
and Args is a list of arguments of type:
shell_args ---> spec+access % A file spec and access mode, format with ~s ; @ground % any term, is written and escaped, format with ~s ; \_. % Any other kind of argument, passed through ; T<(_>>T) % bash process redirection with pipeline of output type T ; T>(T>>_) % bash process redirection with pipeline of input type T access ---> read ; write ; append ; execute.
In process redirection, a command expecting to read to or write from a named file can be redirected to a bash pipeline. In this case, one end of the pipeline is attached to the command, but the other end is left free. The input/output type of that free end interacts with the type of overall command being constructed in the same way as parallel processes interact.
File names should passed to sh/3 as Spec+Access. If Spec is atomic, it is treated as an explicit absolute or relative path in the file system and formatted quoted and escaped so that any special characters in the path are properly handled.
If Spec is a compound term, the system uses absolute_file_name/3
access(Access) option to expand Spec. This must succeed exactly
once, otherwise an exception is thrown. The resulting path is quoted and escaped.
In both cases, the result is captured by '~s' in the format string. There is a subtlety in the handling of compound file specifier terms: the file must exist with the correct access at pipeline composition time---if the file is only created when the pipeline is run, then the path expansion will fail. In these cases, you must use an atomic file specifier, or the (@)/1 operator. This also applies to files used with the redirection operators (:>)/2 and (>:)/2.
cat :: $T >> $T. % any stream type to the same stream type cat(F^T) :: 0 >> $T. % output contents of file F echo(S^T) :: 0 >> $T. % output literal text S as type T
A pipeline expression can be used in one of three ways:
The following predicates are exported, but not or incorrectly documented.