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redis.pl -- Redis client
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This library is a client to Redis, a popular key value store to deal with caching and communication between micro services.

In the typical use case we register the details of one or more Redis servers using redis_server/3. Subsequenly, redis/2-3 is used to issue commands on the server. For example:

?- redis_server(default, redis:6379, [password("secret")]).
?- redis(default, set(user, "Bob")).
?- redis(default, get(user), User).
User = "Bob"
Source redis_server(+ServerName, +Address, +Options) is det
Register a redis server without connecting to it. The ServerName acts as a lazy connection alias. Initially the ServerName default points at localhost:6379 with no connect options. The default server is used for redis/1 and redis/2 and may be changed using this predicate. Options are described with redis_connect/3.

Connections established this way are by default automatically reconnected if the connection is lost for some reason unless a reconnect(false) option is specified.

Source redis_connect(-Connection) is det
Source redis_connect(+Address, -Connection, +Options) is det
redis_connect(-Connection, +Host, +Port) is det
Connect to a redis server. The main mode is redis_connect(+Address, -Connection, +Options). redis_connect/1 is equivalent to redis_connect(localhost:6379, Connection, []). Options:
If true, try to reconnect to the service when the connection seems lost. Default is true for connections specified using redis_server/3 and false for explictly opened connections.
If version(3) and password(Password) are specified, these are used to authenticate using the HELLO command.
Authenticate using Password
Specify the connection protocol version. Initially this is version 2. Redis 6 also supports version 3. When specified as 3, the HELLO command is used to upgrade the protocol.

Instead of using these predicates, redis/2 and redis/3 are normally used with a server name argument registered using redis_server/3. These predicates are meant for creating a temporary paralel connection or using a connection with a blocking call.

Address- is a term Host:Port, unix(File) or the name of a server registered using redis_server/3. The latter realises a new connection that is typically used for blocking redis commands such as listening for published messages, waiting on a list or stream.
- redis_connect(-Connection, +Host, +Port) provides compatibility to the original GNU-Prolog interface and is equivalent to redis_connect(Host:Port, Connection, []).
Source do_connect(+Id, +Address, -Conn, +Options)[private]
Open the connection. A connection is a compound term of the shape
redis_connection(Id, Stream, Failures, Options)
Source hello(+Connection, +Option)[private]
Initialize the connection. This is used to upgrade to the RESP3 protocol and/or to authenticate.
Source redis_stream(+Spec, --Stream, +DoConnect) is det[private]
Get the stream to a Redis server from Spec. Spec is either the name of a registered server or a term redis_connection(Id,Stream,Failures,Options). If the stream is disconnected it will be reconnected.
Source redis_disconnect(+Connection) is det
Source redis_disconnect(+Connection, +Options) is det
Disconnect from a redis server. The second form takes one option, similar to close/2:
When true (default false), do not raise any errors if Connection does not exist or closing the connection raises a network or I/O related exception. This version is used internally if a connection is in a broken state, either due to a protocol error or a network issue.
Source redis(+Connection, +Request) is semidet
This predicate is overloaded to handle two types of requests. First, it is a shorthand for redis(Connection, Command, _) and second, it can be used to exploit Redis pipelines and transactions. The second form is acticated if Request is a list. In that case, each element of the list is either a term Command -> Reply or a simple Command. Semantically this represents a sequence of redis/3 and redis/2 calls. It differs in the following aspects:
  • All commands are sent in one batch, after which all replies are read. This reduces the number of round trips and typically greatly improves performance.
  • If the first command is multi and the last exec, the commands are executed as a Redis transaction, i.e., they are executed atomically.
  • If one of the commands returns an error, the subsequent commands are still executed.
  • You can not use variables from commands earlier in the list for commands later in the list as a result of the above execution order.

Procedurally, the process takes the following steps:

  1. Send all commands
  2. Read all replies and push messages
  3. Handle all callbacks from push messages
  4. Check whether one of the replies is an error. If so, raise this error (subsequent errors are lost)
  5. Bind all replies for the Command -> Reply terms.


?- redis(default,
         [ lpush(li,1),
           lrange(li,0,-1) -> List
List = ["2", "1"].
Source redis(+Connection, +Command, -Reply) is semidet
Execute a redis Command on Connnection. Next, bind Reply to the returned result. Command is a callable term whose functor is the name of the Redis command and whose arguments are translated to Redis arguments according to the rules below. Note that all text is always represented using UTF-8 encoding.
  • Atomic values are emitted verbatim
  • A term A:B:... where all arguments are either atoms, strings or integers (no floats) is translated into a string "A:B:...". This is a common shorthand for representing Redis keys.
  • A term Term as prolog is emitted as "\u0000T\u0000" followed by Term in canonical form.
  • Any other term is emitted as write/1.

Reply is either a plain term (often a variable) or a term Value as Type. In the latter form, Type dictates how the Redis bulk reply is translated to Prolog. The default equals to auto, i.e., as a number of the content satisfies the Prolog number syntax and as an atom otherwise.

  • status(Atom) Returned if the server replies with + Status. Atom is the textual value of Status converted to lower case, e.g., status(ok) or status(pong).
  • nil This atom is returned for a NIL/NULL value. Note that if the reply is only nil, redis/3 fails. The nil value may be embedded inside lists or maps.
  • A number Returned if the server replies an integer (":Int"), double (",Num") or big integer ("(Num")
  • A string Returned on a bulk reply. Bulk replies are supposed to be in UTF-8 encoding. The the bulk reply starts with "\u0000T\u0000" it is supposed to be a Prolog term. Note that this intepretation means it is not possible to read arbitrary binary blobs.
  • A list of replies. A list may also contain nil. If Reply as a whole would be nil the call fails.
  • A list of pairs. This is returned for the redis version 3 protocol "%Map". Both the key and value respect the same rules as above.

Redis bulk replies are translated depending on the as Type as explained above.

Create a SWI-Prolog string object interpreting the blob as following Encoding. Encoding is a restricted set of SWI-Prolog's encodings: bytes (iso_latin_1), utf8 and text (the current locale translation).
As above, producing an atom.
As above, producing a list of integers (Unicode code points)
As above, producing a list of one-character atoms.
Interpret the bytes as a string representing a number. If the string does not represent a number of the requested type a type_error(Type, String) is raised.
Same as integer, but demands the value to be between the Prolog flags min_tagged_integer and max_tagged_integer, allowing the value to be used as a dict key.
Same as auto(atom, number)
auto(AsText, AsNumber)
If the bulk string confirms the syntax of AsNumber, convert the value to the requested numberical type. Else convert the value to text according to AsText. This is similar to the Prolog predicate name/2.
Alias for auto(atom,tagged_integer). This allows the value to be used as a key for a SWI-Prolog dict.
pairs(AsKey, AsValue)
Convert a map or array of even length into pairs for which the key satisfies AsKey and the value AsValue. The pairs type can also be applied to a Redis array. In this case the array length must be even. This notably allows fetching a Redis hash as pairs using HGETALL using version 2 of the Redis protocol.
dict(AsKey, AsValue)
Similar to pairs(AsKey, AsValue), but convert the resulting pair list into a SWI-Prolog dict. AsKey must convert to a valid dict key, i.e., an atom or tagged integer. See dict_key.
Shorthand for dict(dict_key, AsValue).

Here are some simple examples

?- redis(default, set(a, 42), X).
X = status("OK").
?- redis(default, get(a), X).
X = "42".
?- redis(default, get(a), X as integer).
X = 42.
?- redis(default, get(a), X as float).
X = 42.0.
?- redis(default, set(swipl:version, 8)).
?- redis(default, incr(swipl:version), X).
X = 9.
- redis_error(Code, String)
Source redis_pipeline(+Redis, +PipeLine)[private]
Source recover(+Error, +Redis, :Goal)[private]
Error happened while running Goal on Redis. If this is a recoverable error (i.e., a network or disconnected peer), wait a little and try running Goal again.
 wait(+Redis, +Error)[private]
Wait for some time after a failure. First we wait for 10ms. This is doubled on each failure upto the setting max_retry_wait. If the setting max_retry_count is exceeded we fail and the called signals an exception.
Source redis(+Request)
Connect to the default redis server, call redist/3 using Request, disconnect and print the result. This predicate is intended for interactive usage.
Source redis_write(+Redis, +Command) is det
Source redis_read(+Redis, -Reply) is det
Write command and read replies from a Redis server. These are building blocks for subscribing to event streams.
Source redis_get_list(+Redis, +Key, -List) is det
Source redis_get_list(+Redis, +Key, +ChunkSize, -List) is det
Get the content of a Redis list in List. If ChunkSize is given and smaller than the list length, List is returned as a lazy list. The actual values are requested using redis LRANGE requests. Note that this results in O(N^2) complexity. Using a lazy list is most useful for relatively short lists holding possibly large items.

Note that values retrieved are strings, unless the value was added using Term as prolog.

See also
- lazy_list/2 for a discussion on the difference between lazy lists and normal lists.
Source redis_set_list(+Redis, +Key, +List) is det
Associate a Redis key with a list. As Redis has no concept of an empty list, if List is [], Key is deleted. Note that key values are always strings in Redis. The same conversion rules as for redis/1-3 apply.
Source redis_get_hash(+Redis, +Key, -Data:dict) is det
Source redis_set_hash(+Redis, +Key, +Data:dict) is det
Put/get a Redis hash as a Prolog dict. Putting a dict first deletes Key. Note that in many cases applications will manage Redis hashes by key. redis_get_hash/3 is notably a user friendly alternative to the Redis HGETALL command. If the Redis hash is not used by other (non-Prolog) applications one may also consider using the Term as prolog syntax to store the Prolog dict as-is.
Source redis_array_dict(?Array, ?Tag, ?Dict) is det
Translate a Redis reply representing hash data into a SWI-Prolog dict. Array is either a list of alternating keys and values or a list of pairs. When translating to an array, this is always a list of alternating keys and values.
Tag- is the SWI-Prolog dict tag.
Source redis_scan(+Redis, -LazyList, +Options) is det
Source redis_sscan(+Redis, +Set, -LazyList, +Options) is det
Source redis_hscan(+Redis, +Hash, -LazyList, +Options) is det
Source redis_zscan(+Redis, +Set, -LazyList, +Options) is det
Map the Redis SCAN, SSCAN, HSCAN and ZSCAN` commands into a lazy list. For redis_scan/3 and redis_sscan/4 the result is a list of strings. For redis_hscan/4 and redis_zscan/4, the result is a list of pairs. Options processed:
Adds the MATCH subcommand, only returning matches for Pattern.
Adds the COUNT subcommand, giving a hint to the size of the chunks fetched.
Adds the TYPE subcommand, only returning answers of the indicated type.
See also
- lazy_list/2.
Source redis_current_command(+Redis, ?Command) is nondet
Source redis_current_command(+Redis, ?Command, -Properties) is nondet
True when Command has Properties. Fails if Command is not defined. The redis_current_command/3 version returns the command argument specification. See Redis documentation for an explanation.
Source redis_property(+Redis, ?Property) is nondet
True if Property is a property of the Redis server. Currently uses redis(info, String) and parses the result. As this is for machine usage, properties names *_human are skipped.
Source redis_subscribe(+Redis, +Channels, -Id, +Options) is det
Subscribe to one or more Redis PUB/SUB channels. This predicate creates a thread using thread_create/3 with the given Options. Once running, the thread listens for messages. The message content is a string or Prolog term as described in redis/3. On receiving a message, the following message is broadcasted:
redis(Id, Channel, Data)

If redis_unsubscribe/2 removes the last subscription, the thread terminates.

To simply print the incomming messages use e.g.

?- listen(redis(_, Channel, Data),
          format('Channel ~p got ~p~n', [Channel,Data])).
?- redis_subscribe(default, test, Id, []).
Id = redis_pubsub_3,
?- redis(publish(test, "Hello world")).
Channel test got "Hello world"
Id- is the thread identifier of the listening thread. Note that the Options alias(Name) can be used to get a system wide name.
Source redis_subscribe(+Id, +Channels) is det
Source redis_unsubscribe(+Id, +Channels) is det
Add/remove channels from for the subscription. If no subscriptions remain, the listening thread terminates.
Channels- is either a single channel or a list thereof. Each channel specification is either an atom or a term `A:B:...`, where all parts are atoms.
Source redis_current_subscription(?Id, ?Channels)
True when a PUB/SUB subscription with Id is listening on Channels.
Source redis_read_stream(+Redis, +Stream, -Term) is det[private]
Read a message from a Redis stream. Term is one of
  • A list of terms (array)
  • A list of pairs (map, RESP3 only)
  • The atom nil
  • A number
  • A term status(String)
  • A string
  • A boolean (true or false). RESP3 only.

If something goes wrong, the connection is closed and an exception is raised.

Source resync(+Redis) is det[private]
Re-synchronize after an error. This may happen if some type conversion fails and we have read a partial reply. It is hard to figure out what to read from where we are, so we echo a random magic sequence and read until we find the reply.
 redis_read_msg(+Stream, -Message, -Error, -PushMessages) is det[private]
Source redis_write_msg(+Stream, +Message) is det[private]
Read/write a Redis message. Both these predicates are in the foreign module redis4pl.
PushMessages- is a list of push messages that may be non-[] if protocol version 3 (see redis_connect/3) is selected. Using protocol version 2 this list is always empty.

Undocumented predicates

The following predicates are exported, but not or incorrectly documented.

Source redis_connect(Arg1, Arg2, Arg3)
Source redis_disconnect(Arg1, Arg2)
Source redis_current_command(Arg1, Arg2, Arg3)
Source redis_read(Arg1, Arg2)
Source redis_hscan(Arg1, Arg2, Arg3, Arg4)
Source redis_sscan(Arg1, Arg2, Arg3, Arg4)
Source redis_zscan(Arg1, Arg2, Arg3, Arg4)
Source redis_unsubscribe(Arg1, Arg2)
Source redis_set_hash(Arg1, Arg2, Arg3)
Source redis_get_list(Arg1, Arg2, Arg3, Arg4)