1% Simple illustration of the automatic extraction of modes
    2%       in Aleph using Michalski's trains problem.
    3% To run do the following:
    4%       a. Load Aleph
    5%       b. read_all(train).
    6%       c. induce_modes.
    7% Tighter or looser chaining is achieved by changing the
    8% value of the mode_overlap_threshold parameter

?- induce_modes(Modes). */

   15:-use_module(library(aleph)).   16:- if(current_predicate(use_rendering/1)).   17:- use_rendering(prolog).   18:- endif.   19:- aleph.   20:- aleph_set(i,2).   21:- aleph_set(clauselength,4).   22:- aleph_set(mode_overlap_threshold,0.95).   23
   24% commented out -- Aleph has to learn these (or some approximation to them)
   25% :- modeh(1,eastbound(+train)).
   26% :- modeb(1,short(+car)).
   27% :- modeb(1,closed(+car)).
   28% :- modeb(1,long(+car)).
   29% :- modeb(1,open_car(+car)).
   30% :- modeb(1,double(+car)).
   31% :- modeb(1,jagged(+car)).
   32% :- modeb(1,shape(+car,#shape)).
   33% :- modeb(1,load(+car,#shape,#int)).
   34% :- modeb(1,wheels(+car,#int)).
   35% :- modeb(*,has_car(+train,-car)).
   36
   37:- determination(eastbound/1,short/1).   38:- determination(eastbound/1,closed/1).   39:- determination(eastbound/1,long/1).   40:- determination(eastbound/1,open_car/1).   41:- determination(eastbound/1,double/1).   42:- determination(eastbound/1,jagged/1).   43:- determination(eastbound/1,shape/2).   44:- determination(eastbound/1,wheels/2).   45:- determination(eastbound/1,has_car/2).   46:- determination(eastbound/1,load/3).
   47
   48% type definitions
   49car(car_11).  car(car_12).  car(car_13).  car(car_14).
   50car(car_21).  car(car_22).  car(car_23).
   51car(car_31).  car(car_32).  car(car_33).
   52car(car_41).  car(car_42).  car(car_43).  car(car_44).
   53car(car_51).  car(car_52).  car(car_53).
   54car(car_61).  car(car_62).
   55car(car_71).  car(car_72).  car(car_73).
   56car(car_81).  car(car_82).
   57car(car_91).  car(car_92).  car(car_93).  car(car_94).
   58car(car_101).  car(car_102).
   59
   60shape(elipse).  shape(hexagon).  shape(rectangle).  shape(u_shaped).
   61shape(triangle). shape(circle). shape(nil).
   62
   63train(east1).  train(east2).  train(east3).  train(east4).  train(east5).
   64train(west6).  train(west7).  train(west8).  train(west9).  train(west10).
   65
   66% eastbound train 1
   67short(car_12).		% 0
   68closed(car_12).		% 1
   69long(car_11).		% 2
   70long(car_13).
   71short(car_14).
   72open_car(car_11).		% 3
   73% infront(east1,car_11).
   74% infront(car_11,car_12).
   75% infront(car_12,car_13).
   76% infront(car_13,car_14).
   77open_car(car_13).
   78open_car(car_14).
   79shape(car_11,rectangle). % 4,5
   80shape(car_12,rectangle).
   81shape(car_13,rectangle).
   82shape(car_14,rectangle).
   83load(car_11,rectangle,3). % 6,7,8
   84load(car_12,triangle,1).
   85load(car_13,hexagon,1).
   86load(car_14,circle,1).
   87wheels(car_11,2).	  % 9,10
   88wheels(car_12,2).
   89wheels(car_13,3).
   90wheels(car_14,2).
   91has_car(east1,car_11). % 11,12
   92has_car(east1,car_12).
   93has_car(east1,car_13).
   94has_car(east1,car_14).
   95
   96% eastbound train 2
   97has_car(east2,car_21).
   98has_car(east2,car_22).
   99has_car(east2,car_23).
  100% infront(east2,car_21).
  101% infront(car_21,car_22).
  102% infront(car_22,car_23).
  103short(car_21).
  104short(car_22).
  105short(car_23).
  106shape(car_21,u_shaped).
  107shape(car_22,u_shaped).
  108shape(car_23,rectangle).
  109open_car(car_21).
  110open_car(car_22).
  111closed(car_23).
  112load(car_21,triangle,1).
  113load(car_22,rectangle,1).
  114load(car_23,circle,2).
  115wheels(car_21,2).
  116wheels(car_22,2).
  117wheels(car_23,2).
  118
  119% eastbound train 3
  120has_car(east3,car_31).
  121has_car(east3,car_32).
  122has_car(east3,car_33).
  123% infront(east3,car_31).
  124% infront(car_31,car_32).
  125% infront(car_32,car_33).
  126short(car_31).
  127short(car_32).
  128long(car_33).
  129shape(car_31,rectangle).
  130shape(car_32,hexagon).
  131shape(car_33,rectangle).
  132open_car(car_31).
  133closed(car_32).
  134closed(car_33).
  135load(car_31,circle,1).
  136load(car_32,triangle,1).
  137load(car_33,triangle,1).
  138wheels(car_31,2).
  139wheels(car_32,2).
  140wheels(car_33,3).
  141
  142% eastbound train 4
  143has_car(east4,car_41).
  144has_car(east4,car_42).
  145has_car(east4,car_43).
  146has_car(east4,car_44).
  147% infront(east4,car_41).
  148% infront(car_41,car_42).
  149% infront(car_42,car_43).
  150% infront(car_43,car_44).
  151short(car_41).
  152short(car_42).
  153short(car_43).
  154short(car_44).
  155shape(car_41,u_shaped).
  156shape(car_42,rectangle).
  157shape(car_43,elipse).
  158shape(car_44,rectangle).
  159double(car_42).
  160open_car(car_41).
  161open_car(car_42).
  162closed(car_43).
  163open_car(car_44).
  164load(car_41,triangle,1).
  165load(car_42,triangle,1).
  166load(car_43,rectangle,1).
  167load(car_44,rectangle,1).
  168wheels(car_41,2).
  169wheels(car_42,2).
  170wheels(car_43,2).
  171wheels(car_44,2).
  172
  173% eastbound train 5
  174has_car(east5,car_51).
  175has_car(east5,car_52).
  176has_car(east5,car_53).
  177% infront(east5,car_51).
  178% infront(car_51,car_52).
  179% infront(car_52,car_53).
  180short(car_51).
  181short(car_52).
  182short(car_53).
  183shape(car_51,rectangle).
  184shape(car_52,rectangle).
  185shape(car_53,rectangle).
  186double(car_51).
  187open_car(car_51).
  188closed(car_52).
  189closed(car_53).
  190load(car_51,triangle,1).
  191load(car_52,rectangle,1).
  192load(car_53,circle,1).
  193wheels(car_51,2).
  194wheels(car_52,3).
  195wheels(car_53,2).
  196
  197% westbound train 6
  198has_car(west6,car_61).
  199has_car(west6,car_62).
  200% infront(west6,car_61).
  201% infront(car_61,car_62).
  202long(car_61).
  203short(car_62).
  204shape(car_61,rectangle).
  205shape(car_62,rectangle).
  206closed(car_61).
  207open_car(car_62).
  208load(car_61,circle,3).
  209load(car_62,triangle,1).
  210wheels(car_61,2).
  211wheels(car_62,2).
  212
  213% westbound train 7
  214has_car(west7,car_71).
  215has_car(west7,car_72).
  216has_car(west7,car_73).
  217% infront(west7,car_71).
  218% infront(car_71,car_72).
  219% infront(car_72,car_73).
  220short(car_71).
  221short(car_72).
  222long(car_73).
  223shape(car_71,rectangle).
  224shape(car_72,u_shaped).
  225shape(car_73,rectangle).
  226double(car_71).
  227open_car(car_71).
  228open_car(car_72).
  229jagged(car_73).
  230load(car_71,circle,1).
  231load(car_72,triangle,1).
  232load(car_73,nil,0).
  233wheels(car_71,2).
  234wheels(car_72,2).
  235wheels(car_73,2).
  236
  237% westbound train 8
  238has_car(west8,car_81).
  239has_car(west8,car_82).
  240% infront(west8,car_81).
  241% infront(car_81,car_82).
  242long(car_81).
  243short(car_82).
  244shape(car_81,rectangle).
  245shape(car_82,u_shaped).
  246closed(car_81).
  247open_car(car_82).
  248load(car_81,rectangle,1).
  249load(car_82,circle,1).
  250wheels(car_81,3).
  251wheels(car_82,2).
  252
  253% westbound train 9
  254has_car(west9,car_91).
  255has_car(west9,car_92).
  256has_car(west9,car_93).
  257has_car(west9,car_94).
  258% infront(west9,car_91).
  259% infront(car_91,car_92).
  260% infront(car_92,car_93).
  261% infront(car_93,car_94).
  262short(car_91).
  263long(car_92).
  264short(car_93).
  265short(car_94).
  266shape(car_91,u_shaped).
  267shape(car_92,rectangle).
  268shape(car_93,rectangle).
  269shape(car_94,u_shaped).
  270open_car(car_91).
  271jagged(car_92).
  272open_car(car_93).
  273open_car(car_94).
  274load(car_91,circle,1).
  275load(car_92,rectangle,1).
  276load(car_93,rectangle,1).
  277load(car_93,circle,1).
  278wheels(car_91,2).
  279wheels(car_92,2).
  280wheels(car_93,2).
  281wheels(car_94,2).
  282
  283% westbound train 10
  284has_car(west10,car_101).
  285has_car(west10,car_102).
  286% infront(west10,car_101).
  287% infront(car_101,car_102).
  288short(car_101).
  289long(car_102).
  290shape(car_101,u_shaped).
  291shape(car_102,rectangle).
  292open_car(car_101).
  293open_car(car_102).
  294load(car_101,rectangle,1).
  295load(car_102,rectangle,2).
  296wheels(car_101,2).
  297wheels(car_102,2).
  298
  299
  300% cost(_,[P,N|_],Cost):-
  301	% Cost is 1-(P+1)/(P+N+2).
  302% 
  303% 
  304% :- aleph_set(refine,user).
  305% 
  306% refine(false,eastbound(X)):- !.
  307% refine(Clause,Clause1):-
  308	% add_lit(has_car(X,Y),Clause,Clause1).
  309% 
  310% add_lit(has_car(A,B),eastbound(A),(eastbound(A):-has_car(A,B))):- !.
  311% add_lit(has_car(A,B),(eastbound(A):-true),(eastbound(A):-has_car(A,B))):- !.
  312% add_lit(has_car(A,B),(eastbound(A):-Body),(eastbound(A):-Body1)):-
  313	% !,
  314	% add_lit(has_car(A,B),Body,Body1).
  315% add_lit(L,(L1,L2),(L1,L3)):-
  316	% !,
  317	% add_lit(L,L2,L3).
  318% add_lit(L,L1,(L1,L)).
  319
  320% % 
  321% refine(false,(eastbound(X):-has_car(X,Y),short(Y),closed(Y))).
  322% refine(false,eastbound(X)).
  323% refine(eastbound(X),(eastbound(X):-has_car(X,Y))).
  324% refine(eastbound(X),(eastbound(X):-has_car(X,Y),short(Y))).
  325% refine((eastbound(X):-has_car(X,Y),short(Y)),(eastbound(X):-has_car(X,Y),short(Y),closed(Y))).
  326
  327% :- aleph_set(portray_literals,true).
  328% :- aleph_set(portray_search,true).
  329
  330% :- [portray].
  331/*
  332portray(eastbound(A)):-
  333	write('Train '), write(A),
  334	write(' is eastbound').
  335
  336portray(has_car(A,B)):-
  337	write('train '), write(A),
  338	write(' has a car '), write(B).
  339
  340portray(short(B)):-
  341	write('car '), write(B),
  342	write(' is short').
  343
  344portray(closed(B)):-
  345	write('car '), write(B),
  346	write(' is closed').
  347
  348portray(long(B)):-
  349	write('car '), write(B),
  350	write(' is long').
  351
  352portray(open_car(B)):-
  353	write('car '), write(B),
  354	write(' is open').
  355
  356portray(double(B)):-
  357	write('car '), write(B),
  358	write(' is double-walled').
  359
  360portray(jagged(B)):-
  361	write('car '), write(B),
  362	write(' has a jagged roof').
  363
  364portray(shape(B,C)):-
  365	write('car '), write(B),
  366	write(' is '), write(C), write('-shaped').
  367
  368portray(wheels(B,C)):-
  369	write('car '), write(B),
  370	write(' has '), write(C),
  371	write(' wheels').
  372
  373portray(load(B,C,D)):-
  374	write('car '), write(B),
  375	write(' has '), write(D),
  376	write(' '), write(C), write('-shaped load(s)').
  377
  378*/
  379
  380:-end_bg.  381:-begin_in_pos.  382eastbound(east1).
  383eastbound(east2).
  384eastbound(east3).
  385eastbound(east4).
  386eastbound(east5).
  387
  388% eastbound(east1).
  389% eastbound(east2).
  390% eastbound(east3).
  391% eastbound(east4).
  392% eastbound(east5).
  393% eastbound(east1).
  394% eastbound(east2).
  395% eastbound(east3).
  396% eastbound(east4).
  397% eastbound(east5).
  398% eastbound(east1).
  399% eastbound(east1).
  400% eastbound(east1).
  401% eastbound(east1).
  402% eastbound(east1).
  403% eastbound(east1).
  404% eastbound(east1).
  405% eastbound(east1).
  406% eastbound(east1).
  407% eastbound(east1).
  408% eastbound(east1).
  409% eastbound(east1).
  410% eastbound(east1).
  411% eastbound(east1).
  412% eastbound(east1).
  413% eastbound(east1).
  414% eastbound(east1).
  415% eastbound(east1).
  416% eastbound(east1).
  417% eastbound(east1).
  418% eastbound(east1).
  419% eastbound(east2).
  420% eastbound(east3).
  421% eastbound(east4).
  422% eastbound(east5).
  423% eastbound(east2).
  424% eastbound(east3).
  425% eastbound(east4).
  426% eastbound(east5).
  427% eastbound(east2).
  428% eastbound(east3).
  429% eastbound(east4).
  430% eastbound(east5).
  431% eastbound(east2).
  432% eastbound(east3).
  433% eastbound(east4).
  434% eastbound(east5).
  435% eastbound(east2).
  436% eastbound(east3).
  437% eastbound(east4).
  438% eastbound(east5).
  439% eastbound(east2).
  440% eastbound(east3).
  441% eastbound(east4).
  442% eastbound(east5).
  443% eastbound(east2).
  444% eastbound(east3).
  445% eastbound(east4).
  446% eastbound(east5).
  447% eastbound(east2).
  448% eastbound(east3).
  449% eastbound(east4).
  450% eastbound(east5).
  451% eastbound(east2).
  452% eastbound(east3).
  453% eastbound(east4).
  454% eastbound(east5).
  455% eastbound(east2).
  456% eastbound(east3).
  457% eastbound(east4).
  458% eastbound(east5).
  459% eastbound(east2).
  460% eastbound(east3).
  461% eastbound(east4).
  462% eastbound(east5).
  463% eastbound(east2).
  464% eastbound(east3).
  465% eastbound(east4).
  466% eastbound(east5).
  467% eastbound(east2).
  468% eastbound(east3).
  469% eastbound(east4).
  470% eastbound(east5).
  471% eastbound(east2).
  472% eastbound(east3).
  473% eastbound(east4).
  474% eastbound(east5).
  475% eastbound(east2).
  476% eastbound(east3).
  477% eastbound(east4).
  478% eastbound(east5).
  479% eastbound(east2).
  480% eastbound(east3).
  481% eastbound(east4).
  482% eastbound(east5).
  483% eastbound(east2).
  484% eastbound(east3).
  485% eastbound(east4).
  486% eastbound(east5).
  487% eastbound(east2).
  488% eastbound(east3).
  489% eastbound(east4).
  490% eastbound(east5).
  491% eastbound(east2).
  492% eastbound(east3).
  493% eastbound(east4).
  494% eastbound(east5).
  495% eastbound(east2).
  496% eastbound(east3).
  497% eastbound(east4).
  498% eastbound(east5).
  499% eastbound(east2).
  500% eastbound(east3).
  501% eastbound(east4).
  502% eastbound(east5).
  503:-end_in_pos.  504
  505:-begin_in_neg.  506
  507eastbound(west6).
  508eastbound(west7).
  509eastbound(west8).
  510eastbound(west9).
  511eastbound(west10).
  512
  513%westbound(east1).
  514%westbound(east2).
  515%westbound(east3).
  516%westbound(east4).
  517%westbound(east5).
  518:-end_in_neg.